Paris Sports News

JOINT WSF & PSA REACTION ON IOC SPORTS SELECTION PROCESS FOR PARIS 2024 OLYMPIC GAMES

Paris Sport News - 4 hours 7 min ago

https://psaworldtour.com/news/view/5673/joint-wsf-psa-reaction-on-ioc-sports-selection-process-for-paris-2024-olympic-games

he World Squash Federation (WSF) and the Professional Squash Association (PSA) jointly welcomed today's announcement made by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) regarding the new sports selection procedure for the Paris 2024 Olympic Games at the IOC Executive Board Meeting in Lausanne.

Following the announcement of the principles [that can be found here], WSF and PSA reiterated squash's readiness to bid and to demonstrate why the sport will be a great strategic choice for inclusion in the Olympic programme.

WSF President Jacques Fontaine and PSA Chief Executive Alex Gough commented:

“The whole sport is truly united in our desire to participate in the selection process and to show the strong attributes that squash can bring to the IOC and to Paris 2024 in the context of the on-going New Norm and Agenda 2020 reforms.

“Squash has a vibrant and real forward-looking vision rooted in constant innovation, striving for more inclusiveness and sustainability across all our activities on and outside of the court. We truly believe that we can seamlessly integrate the Olympic programme with a minimal investment and an optimised gender-equal pool of participants, while bringing a lot of additional excitement and spectacular action to the very heart of the host cities.

“We are preparing for the Buenos Aires 2018 Youth Olympic Games, where squash will be participating as a showcase sport and will be represented by a selection of juniors from around the world on glass courts with impressive interactive features. We are looking forward to giving the Olympic family first-hand experience of what our sport offers.”

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PSG offer Bonucci €10m/year?

Paris Sport News - 6 hours 16 min ago

Paris Saint-Germain are reportedly prepared to offer Leonardo Bonucci €10m per season to leave Milan.

Reports emerged this week that the Rossoneri captain is thinking of leaving, and the rumours have only gathered pace in the past few days.

Gazzetta dello Sport stated this morning that the Diavolo would consider a sale at €40m, while the centre-back’s agent is believed to have met with PSG already to sketch out a basic agreement.

Now Corriere dello Sport reports that agreement is worth €10m per season, and Bonucci is now just waiting for the Parisian side to make an official offer.

He currently earns around €7.5m per season, and while that can approach €10m with bonuses a move to the Parc des Princes would still represent a significant increase.

Source

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Senteurs, parfums et arts olfactifs - un guide pour r/france - Partie 2 : Mes recommandations pour toutes les saisons.

Paris Sport News - 10 hours 58 min ago

Vous avez raté la partie 1 ? C'est par ici !

Un nouveau jour se lève sur la planète r/france, et u/quodo se rend compte qu’il a un jour de retard dans l’écriture de la partie 2 de son guide. Qu’importe, allons-y !

Aujourd’hui, nous allons passer en revue divers parfums, parfois faciles à trouver, parfois non, afin de peupler vos armoires. Mais d’abord, quelques règles :

  • On n’achète pas un parfum avant de le tester. Sérieusement, ne dépensez pas des dizaines voire centaines d’euros à l’aveugle, c’est le meilleur moyen de le regretter et de finir comme moi avec des dizaines de bouteilles à offrir parceque vous n’en voudrez pas. Ce n’est pas parcequ’un charismatique utilisateur des internets vous a dit qu’un parfum sent bon que vous l’apprécierez.
  • Par tester, j’entends s’asperger du parfum dans afin de le porter comme dans la vraie vie, pendant plusieurs heures. Cela vous permettra de distinguer à la fois ce qu’il se passe lors des premières minutes, mais aussi lorsque les notes de la base de la pyramide olfactive s’expriment. Hélas, une des modes actuelles est de tout mettre dans les notes de têtes, parceque le client teste juste rapidement en Sephora, un peu comme la fameuse pub de 6 secondes sur Youtube, et la base est régulièrement meh voire bleh.
  • Si vous habitez trop loin d’une boutique (quelle idée d’habiter en dehors de Paris aussi), plusieurs choix s’offrent à vous : vous pouvez envoyer un mail à la marque qui vous intéresse, elle se fera souvent un plaisir de vous envoyer des échantillons gratuitement. Certaines ont des programmes d’échantillonnage sympa, où elles vous envoient X échantillons pour Y euros, avec un bon d’achat de Y euros pour l’achat d’une bouteille complète. La plupart des maisons de niche n’offrent pas d’échantillon, car elles ne font pas d’économies d’échelles, mais elles les vendent, ce qui reste un moyen d’économiser de l’argent en ne payant que quelques millilitres. Enfin, certains sites sont spécialisés dans le fractionnement de bouteilles, et vous enverront donc 1ml, 2ml ou plus d’un parfum pour un prix non compétitif, mais là encore moins cher qu’une bouteille pleine.
  • Vous pouvez tout à fait essayer votre parfum en magasin et l’acheter pour moins cher sur Internet. De nombreux sites dits du “marché gris” vendent des vieux stocks pour moins cher que les grandes enseignes.

Cela nous amène à quelques autres règles : où s’asperger de parfum et comment le conserver ?

  • Le nombre de sprays dépend de la puissance du parfum et de l’objectif. Imaginons que vous voulez porter Dolce & Gabana Light Blue dans un espace ouvert, par exemple dans un bar de plage. Vous pourrez aisément monter à 7 sprays, car cette eau de toilette n’est pas très puissante au départ. A l’inverse, un extrait de parfum ne nécessitera qu’un maximum de 3 sprays dans la plupart des cas.
  • En général, on conseille de déposer du parfum au poignet et au niveau du torse. Si votre parfum est très puissant, évitez le torse, vous risquez de le subir de plein fouet. Ensuite, vous pouvez aussi en mettre aux épaules et derrière la nuque. Attention : votre parfum n’aura pas la même odeur sur la peau que sur vos vêtements.
  • On ne frotte pas le parfum. Jamais. Ça ne sert à rien à part accélérer le vieillissement, mais franchement, vous n’êtes pas à 5 minutes prêt.
  • Le parfum s’abime avec le temps, mais aussi la chaleur et la lumière. Essayez de le conserver au frais. L’idéal est une mini cave à vin électrique mais bon, ça fait un peu cher. Evitez donc la salle de bain et ses amplitudes de température, et l’ensoleillement direct.

Maintenant que ces préliminaires sont faits, passons aux choses sérieuses. Partez du principe qu’il vous faut un minimum de 2 bouteilles pour vous adapter à toute l’année, mais que 4 paraît être pas mal aussi. Certains fabricants proposent des petits formats (10, 30, 50ml), d’autres hélas non, sachant qu’une bouteille de 100ml peut facilement tenir plusieurs années, en particulier en rotation.

J’ai choisi une approche par saison et période de la journée, avec 3 options à chaque fois, à des prix différents, parce qu’elle me semble la plus simple et évite le côté collection pour la collection.

Eté

Il fait chaud. Vous n'êtes pas forcément au travail ou à l’école, parceque c’est LES VACANCES. Le soleil vous donne envie de sortir, mais il vous fait aussi littéralement suer, l’enflure. Que porter donc pendant les journées qui s’annoncent longues, et les nuits enflammées ?

Journée

  • Zara - Vibrant Leather : Eau de Parfum édition limitée 2018 : On commence par un petit prix, 20€, mais attention, il va falloir acheter tant qu’ils en ont en stock. En effet, Zara propose régulièrement de très bons parfums, souvent des clones d’autres plutôt connus, mais leur disponibilité suit les règles de la fast fashion. Ici, on a un parfum frais, un mix de bergamote, de bambou et de cuir, parfaitement adapté à une journée de travail estival. La durée pourrait être meilleure, mais à ce prix, on ne peut pas non plus demander de miracles en général. Si vous l’aimez, prévoyez d’acheter une bouteille d’avance, au cas où.
  • Hermès - Terre d’Hermès Eau de Toilette : Un parfum devenu un classique, création de Jean-Claude Ellena, on a ici une utilisation parfaite d’une molécule appelée Iso Super E par le commun des mortels, qui a la caractéristique d’offrir une odeur de cèdre ou de santal et de porter loin. Vous la retrouverez par exemple dans Dior - Fahrenheit. Terre d’Hermès vous propose un mix de vetiver, une herbe très utilisée dans les parfums masculins, de poivre et d’orange. Je ne peux personnellement pas le porter car c’est le parfum de mon beau-père, et avouons-le, ça serait bizarre.
  • Acqua di Parma - Colonia Essenza : Encore des agrumes, par une maison spécialisée dans les colognes traditionnelles. Là, on a vraiment cette odeur caractéristique, mix d’agrumes légers, de néroli (une des variétés de fleurs d’orangers), de petitgrain (les feuilles de l’oranger amer), qui une fois qu’on arrive dans les phases avancées, prennent une tournure savonneuse très intéressante. Un bon moyen d’avoir la classe en toute circonstance.

Soirée

  • Davidoff - Cool Water Night Dive : Un aquatique petit budget, avec de la menthe et des fruits en ouverture, puis une note de pistache qui ressort lors de la sèche. C’est un parfum avec des de bonnes performances, ce qui est appréciable.
  • Chanel - Allure Homme Sport Eau Extrême : Un flanker de qualité d’un classique de Chanel. Qu’est-ce qu’un flanker? C’est une variation sur thème, avec en général le même nom suivi de qualificatifs divers. Souvent, le premier flanker est une version Eau de Parfum de l’eau de toilette d’origine, mais certaines maisons créent un nombre incalculable de flankers. On pensera par exemple à Issey Miyake et son Eau d’Issey, une trentaine de flankers et certains n’ont juste rien à voir avec l’original comme la versions Noir Ambré. Mais revenons à C:AHSEE, qui est un parfum avec une forte odeur de fèves de tonka, probablement liée à la présence de coumarin, de mandarine et de menthe, avec un final boisé et musqué. Un parfum assez cosy pour les nuits estivales donc.
  • Zoologist - Bat : Une de mes maisons de niche favorites, avec un concept particulier, Zoologist tente de créer des odeurs correspondant à l’environnement d’un animal. Dragonfly, Elephant, Panda, Civet, Camel, Nightingale, c’est à chaque fois un style complètement différent qui s’invite, sur une concentration Extrait. Mon favori reste Bat dont je vous parle ici. Déjà attention, pas plus de 2 sprays si vous ne souhaitez pas asphyxier votre entourage. Le parfumeur voulait ici recréer l’environnement des chauves-souris frugivores (si vous regardez la bouteille vous noterez l’erreur, c’est une vulgaire pipistrelle insectivore en costard, que fait la police ?), et c’est chose faite. On a donc un parfum qui émule des fruits sur-mûris tombés sur le sol humide d’une grotte. La note terreuse est obtenue par l’utilisation de géosmine, une molécule caractéristique du petrichor (l’odeur qui survient après l’ondée) et des betteraves. Performances extraordinaires, originalité à 20/10, on aime ou on déteste mais impossible de rester indifférent.

Automne

Les jours raccourcissent, les températures baissent un peu malgré quelques pics, retour au traintrain quotidien. C’est le moment de ressortir les parfums de tous les jours, parceque vous voulez impressionner votre auditoire lors de votre future présentation PowerPoint (spoiler alert, ils ne vous sentiront pas, vous êtes trop loin).

Journée

  • The Body Shop - Activist : L’option budget est ici un mix d’ambres, d’épices et de bois, assez linéaire. Petit point culture sur l’ambre : en parfumerie, l’ambre n’existe pas en tant que matière, mais est un accord, c’est à dire un mélange. Chaque parfumeur a son ou ses ambres, qui sont des accords vanillés et boisés. A ne pas confondre avec l’ambregris, dont nous parlerons plus tard.
  • Cartier - Déclaration : Cardamome mon amour. Là où de nombreuses épices sont chaudes, la cardamome souffle rafraîchit, elle est la réfrigération par excellence. Dans Déclaration, on la retrouve associée à l’orange amer et au carvi, avec des notes boisées en fond. Attention, carvis, cumin et assimilés donnent souvent une impression d’odeur corporelle, de sueur, que certains trouvent désagréable mais d’autres trouvent parfaitement à leur goût.
  • Atelier Cologne - Citron d’Erable : Atelier Cologne dont j’avais parlé dans la première partie a une gamme très variée de parfums avec des notes assez facilement identifiables. Citron d’Erable porte bien son nom : c’est une odeur de citron associée au sirop d’érable pour un contraste acide/sucré, très agréable à porter. Cette maison vend un pack découverte à 30€ pour 15 échantillons, que je recommande si vous voulez vous amuser.

Soirée

  • Zara - 9.0 : Retour chez Zara pour ce parfum qui a le bon goût de d’utiliser l’iris, une de mes notes favorites, pour pas cher. L’iris de parfumerie, Iris pallida, est une matière noble, extrêmement onéreuse, avec une pallette de senteur très variée selon le type d’extraction et les associations. Ici, vous vous doutez bien qu’on est sur du synthétique, avec une odeur qui rappelle le rouge à lèvre. Un peu efféminé donc, mais efficace.
  • Dior - Dior Homme Parfum : Là encore, l’iris est au centre, pour une version Parfum de Dior Homme qui est à mon sens le meilleur flanker de la gamme. Là où Zara 9.0 propose plutôt un Iris ambré, on est sur un Iris cuiré, plus sombre, plus profond, avec des performances extraordinaires. Il n’est pas vendu aux USA pour une raison que j’ignore, donc si vous avez un ami qui aime les parfums et y vit, c’est un cadeau sympathique à lui faire.
  • Parfum d’Empires - Fougère Bengale : Le tabac, c’est tabou, on en viendra tous à bout ! Parfum d’Empires est une petite maison fondée par un de mes parfumeurs favoris, Marc-Antoine Corticchiato. Tous les parfums qu’ils proposent sont des réussites et prennent des risques. Ici donc on a une réécriture du style Fougère (lavande et tonka en général, Houbigant - Fougère Royale étant l'archétype de départ), avec une note de tabac extrêmement agréable, herbeuse, doublée d’un rhum. En général le tabac en parfumerie est une note que je n’aime pas trop car je la trouve mal utilisée, trop sucrée, mais ici on a un parfum qui accentue l’aspect aromatique pour mon plus grand plaisir.

Hiver

Ça y’est, on se les gèle. Il va falloir sortir l’arme et surtout les molécules lourdes, parceque vos parfums vont avoir du mal à s’exprimer par les températures hivernales. Mais ne vous inquiétez pas, il y a de quoi faire.

Jour

  • L’Occitane - Eau des Baux : Pas le moins cher des parfums pas chers, mais une valeur sûre que je conseille régulièrement pour toute les saisons en dehors de l’été. Vanille, cyprès et encens se mélangent dans une odeur délicieuse et agréable.
  • Yves Saint-Laurent - Rive Gauche : Un grand classique d’une maison que je trouve en perte de vitesse depuis son rachat, avec des notes que vous retrouverez dans de nombreuses compositions un peu datées : le géranium, la mousse de chêne, la lavande… Pensez savon de barbier, vous avez l’idée. Mais le classicisme a du bon, et Rive Gauche est un très bon exemple d’un parfum qui a la classe d’antan.
  • Guerlain - Encens Mythique d’Orient : Je parlais de l’ambregris précédemment. Il s’agit d’une note qui est rarement issue du produit naturel, AKA une sécrétion intestinale de cachalot, mais ici, c’est bien le cas. Il s’associe à l’encens et à la rose pour un parfum qui a autant d’expressions que d’heures dans la journée, unique et protéiforme. Car c’est là la magie de l’ambregris : il a la capacité de transformer une composition en chef d’oeuvre, le faisant passer de la 2D à la 3D. L’ambroxan est l’équivalent le plus utilisé en synthétique, et se retrouve par exemple dans Sauvage en grandes quantités.

Nuit

  • Lalique - Encre Noire : Cyprès budget encore, mais ici associé à du vetiver. Un parfum qui porte, très caractéristique, agréable et boisé, avec un aspect fumé du plus bel effet. Si vous cherchez une signature olfactive à pas cher pour la saison fraiche, ne cherchez pas plus loin.
  • Tom Ford - Black Orchid (Eau de Parfum) : Vous trouverez ce parfum au rayon femme de votre Sephora, mais il s’agit d’un unisexe connu et reconnu. Du chocolat, de la truffe et du patchouli s’associent pour créer autour de vous un nuage d’opulence. Pas le parfum le plus simple à apprécier car sa présence est très perceptible, mais il faut en faire l’expérience au moins une fois dans sa vie à mon avis.
  • Amouage - Interlude Man : Amouage est une maison créée à la demande d’un prince d’Oman, avec comme objectif de donner une visibilité internationale aux traditions de parfumerie moyen orientales. C’est chose faite, avec succès. Interlude Man est un monstre de sillage et de longévité, utilisant l’encens, l’ambre et la résine d’opopanax créent l’un des meilleurs encens du marché.

Printemps

Complétons notre tour de cadran avec le printemps, renouveau fleuri annuel, fonte des glaces et tutti quanti. Les températures remontent, on fait tomber les épaisseurs, enfin !

Jour

  • Pharrell - Girl : Et oui, vous ne le saviez pas, mais Pharrell Williams a sorti un parfum, qui fut un échec commercial. Heureusement pour nous, il est du coup facile à trouver pour pas cher sur Internet, le temps d’écouler les stocks. La note la plus caractéristique ici est la feuille de violette, que vous avez peut-être senti dans Farenheit par exemple. On est plus dans l’unisexe pour Girl, avec moins d’odeur de pétrole, et la bouteille est très mignonne.
  • Guerlain - Vetiver Eau de Toilette : Le vetiver est vraiment LA note masculine de l’homme en chemise par excellence, et chaque maison en donne son interprétation. Chez Guerlain, c’est aux noix, aux agrumes et au tabac qu’il s’associe, pour un des meilleurs rapports qualité/prix du marché. Très sec, pas très frais, bref, parfait pour le printemps, mais aussi l’automne évidemment.
  • Editions Frédéric Malle - Géranium pour Monsieur : Une maison qui offre de nombreuses options très différentes, avec à chaque fois un parfumeur invité. Là, on a donc un parfum classique, rappelez-vous de la description que j’avais fait de Rive Gauche. Mais les épices (Anis étoilée, clou de girofle, cannelle) donnent une profondeur au géranium et à la menthe, et le différencient des créations intemporelles, le rendant certes plus difficile à porter, mais aussi plus distinct.

Nuit

  • Salvador Dali - Le Roy Soleil Extreme for Men : A chaque célébrité ses parfums, et même par-delà les tombes ! Le Roy Soleil Extrême est une fougère peu onéreuse, qui vous rappellera l’odeur de la mousse à raser, avec une modernité qui le rend tout terrain, et là encore, une bouteille un peu originale. Mousse de chêne, lavande et citron se conjuguent sans astringence.
  • Armani - Acqua di Gio Profumo : Un tout terrain encore, que ce soit en journée ou en soirée, très apprécié en général. Notes marines, encens, bergamote, c’est une fraîcheur moderne, peut-être un peu trop classique de nos jours et qui peut manquer d’originalité, mais un bon premier achat par exemple.
  • David Jourquin - Cuir Caraïbe : On termine en beauté avec un cuir mâtiné de gingembre, de poivre et de mangue, une alliance improbable qui méritait bien une place dans cette liste. Parfait pour les soirées de printemps et d’été, quand l’envie de vacances s’installe peu à peu.

Voilà, j'ai essayé de vous faire un tour d'horizon de ce qui peut exister, vous vous doutez bien que je n'ai qu'effleuré la surface et j'aurais pu mentionner de nombreuses autres références. Vous pouvez bien sûr poser vos questions ci-dessous, j'y répondrai avec plaisir.

N'hésitez pas à sentir des parfums là où vous en trouverez, former son nez est toujours une expérience intéressante !

Si vous êtes en manque de lecture, vous pourrez acheter Nez Magazine, seul trimestriel parlant de parfumerie, édité en français et en anglais.

Vous pouvez aussi lire les quelques autres trucs que j'ai posté ici et là comme ce post sur les carnets de note, ou mon AMA sur mon vrai métier.

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[Wednesday July 18 2018] Man finishes 50-state trip to mow lawns for elderly, disabled and veterans; recipients of thank-you letters are more touched than we expect finds new study; 12 new moons discovered around Jupiter; Google Fined Record $5 Billion...

Paris Sport News - Wed, 07/18/2018 - 20:26
/r/blog /r/UpliftingNews
  • /u/emitremmus27

    Thailand Cave Boys Say They Want To Be Navy SEAL Divers In First Public Comments Since Rescue

    Comments || Link

  • /u/skylink

    [Title Post] Man finishes 50-state trip to mow lawns for elderly, disabled, and veterans

    Comments || Link

/r/science
  • /u/mvea

    [Title Post] Underestimating the power of gratitude – recipients of thank-you letters are more touched than we expect, finds new study published in Psychological Science.

    Comments || Link

/r/space /r/technology
  • /u/mvea

    Elon Musk, DeepMind founders, and others sign pledge to not develop lethal AI weapon systems

    Comments || Link

/r/Futurology
  • /u/marsinvictus

    Can we remove a trillion tons of carbon from the atmosphere? Ocean ecologist Russ George explains how ocean restoration will lower greenhouse gases and bring back fish stocks to levels not seen for generations

    Comments || Link

/r/business
  • /u/Fatherthinger

    [Title Post] Google Fined Record $5 Billion by EU, Given 90 Days to Stop ‘Illegal Practices’

    Comments || Link

  • /u/webstuf

    Walmart is reportedly working on its own streaming service to challenge Netflix and Amazon, and it might cost less than $8 a month

    Comments || Link

/r/AskHistorians
  • /u/elephantofdoom

    In Mad Men, Don Draper turned 18 sometime in 1944, but wasn’t drafted during WWII. How likely would an eligible man like himself miss the draft?

    Comments

/r/AskReddit /r/todayilearned
  • /u/eggsrith

    TIL that freestyle in swimming technically means you can swim in any style; however the front crawl is synonymous with freestyle since it is the fastest and most efficient stroke.

    Comments || Link

/r/GifRecipes /r/Baking /r/movies /r/sports /r/Art /r/television /r/OldSchoolCool /r/pics /r/gifs /r/educationalgifs /r/oddlysatisfying /r/mildlyinteresting /r/MostBeautiful /r/EarthPorn /r/AbandonedPorn /r/HistoryPorn
  • /u/Crowe410

    Professional frogman Courtney Brown tows a 55-foot scale model of the Titanic during work on the film "Raise the Titanic!", 20 June 1980 [2000×1321]

    Comments || Link

/r/aww /r/Awwducational
  • /u/FillsYourNiche

    Hermit crabs need to find new shells to move into as they grow. If one finds a shell that is too big it'll wait for a larger crab to come along so it can take their old shell. Other crabs congregate waiting for available shells and form a line from largest to smallest so they can all swap shells.

    Comments || Link

Something New

Everyday we’ll feature a selected small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.

Today's subreddit is... /r/LanguageTechnology

Its top 3 all time posts

hey all - i'm headed to the shore for the next few days - another mod will step in to post if they can, if not posts will resume Wednesday the 25th. as always, thanks for reading!

submitted by /u/kaunis to r/tldr
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[SELLING] Decants of Vintage, Niche, and Designer Fragrances

Paris Sport News - Wed, 07/18/2018 - 11:43

Hello all, I have the following frags available for decanting. The size of decant is 10ml. Price includes shipping.

Each order includes one free 1ml sample fragrance. Orders over $35 get upgraded to USPS Priority shipping for free

Vintage/Earlier Formulations:

  1. Gucci Envy for Men - $40
  2. Creed Green Irish Tweed 2008 - $25
  3. Creed Original Vetiver 2009 - $25
  4. Creed Royal Oud 2014 - $25
  5. Creed Tabarome Millesime 2013 - $25
  6. Dior Eau Sauvage Extreme Concentree EDT- $25
  7. Dior Eau Sauvage EDT Propellant vintage - $25
  8. Monsieur De Gevinchy - $25
  9. Dior Fahrenheit EDT Batch 3108D - $20
  10. Dior Fahrenheit Aftershave Batch 3096E - $15
  11. Michael by Michael Kors - $15
  12. Azzaro Pour Homme - $15

Pic of vintage frags: https://imgur.com/mJrRjBu

Niche:

  1. Xerjoff Naxos - $30
  2. Diptyque Volutes EDP - $30
  3. By Killian Light My Fire - $30
  4. Tuscan Scent Golden Acacia by Salvatore Ferragamo - $25
  5. Etat Libre D'Orange Rein Intense Incense - $25
  6. Mancera Red Tobacco - $25
  7. Mancera Hindu Kush - $25
  8. Phaedon Tabac Rouge - $25
  9. Ineke Field Notes From Paris - $20
  10. Tea for Two by L'Artisan Parfumeur - $20
  11. Jo Malone Incense & Cedrat - $20
  12. Creed Neroli Sauvage - $20
  13. Montale Mr. Oud - $20
  14. Montale Honey Aoud - $20
  15. Montale Aoud Cuir d’Arabie - $20
  16. Acqua Di Parma Mirra - $20
  17. Alexandria Fragrances Anubis Kiss - Black Afgano clone - $20
  18. Atelier Cologne Tobacco Nuit - $15
  19. Comme Des Garcons Wonderoud - $15
  20. Acqua Di Parma Colonia Intensa - $13
  21. Acqua di Parma Colonia Assoluta - $15
  22. Berdoues Maasai Mara - $15
  23. Serge Lutins Ambre Sultan - $15
  24. Clean Reserve Sueded Oud - $15
  25. Armaf Club De Nuit Intense for Men (CDNIM) - $15
  26. Trussardi L'uomo - $10
  27. Insurrection II Pure - $10

Designer:

  1. Dior Homme Parfum - $23
  2. Dior Homme Intense EDP - $23
  3. Dior Prive Leather Oud - $23
  4. YSL M7 Oud Absolu - $23
  5. Chopard Oud Malaki/discontinued - $23
  6. Dior Eau Sauvage EDP 2012 version/discontinued - $23
  7. Armani Acqua Di Gio Profumo Special Blend - $23
  8. MMM Music Festival - $20
  9. MMM At The Barbers - $20
  10. Zara Rich Warm Addictive/discontinued - $20
  11. Chanel Allure Homme Sport Eau Extreme EDT - $20
  12. Chanel Platinum Egoiste - $15
  13. Chopard Noble Cedar - $15
  14. Chopard Noble Vetiver - $15
  15. Azzaro Wanted by Night - $15
  16. Mercedes Intense for men - $15
  17. Mugler Pure Havane - $15
  18. Mugler A-Men - $15
  19. Mugler Pure Wood - $15
  20. Bvlgari Man in Black - $15
  21. Bvlgari Man in Black Black Orient - $15
  22. Narciso Rodriguez For Him EDT - $15
  23. Gucci Pour Homme II - $15
  24. Paco Rabanne 1 Million Prive - $15
  25. Mugler Cologne - $15
  26. The Body Shoppe Widdringtonia - $15
  27. Azzaro Visit for Men - $15
  28. Banana Republic Black Walnut - $15

My positive feedback can be found on ebay or Basenotes under psawjack.

All decants are made to order. Decants come in a glass 10ml atomizer with cap. Decants will have plumbers tape on threads to prevent leakage. Decants will ship in Ziploc baggies and then placed in bubble wrap before placed in bubble envelope.

*Please note: All atomizers are primed at least once to verify functionality\*

All purchase prices are made through Paypal Friends and Family. If you want goods and services add 4.5\% to total cost. Shipping will be USPS First Class Mail unless buyer wants priority, then add $5.

Thanks for looking. Feel free to ask any questions. I can send and post pics, once I figure out how on Reddit.

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25-Day Europe Trip Itinerary for Fall 2018

Paris Sport News - Tue, 07/17/2018 - 23:31

Hi everyone,

My husband and I are planning our first trip to Europe for late September to October of this year. We're hoping to be there for 25 days, not including flight time to and from there. We also don't have a specific City that we want to fly into, but London, Paris, and Amsterdam seem to be the cheapest from where we are (PNW). Since neither of us has ever been outside of North America, we want to hit a lot of the major spots on this trip, but I'm worried that we've run into an overplanning issue and would love some help. Suggestions on cutting down travel time, increasing/decreasing days in a city/town, or removing/adding cities/towns are all welcome!

This is what we have so far:

Day 1 - Arrive in London

Day 2 - London

Day 3 - London

Day 4 - London to Paris

Day 5 - Paris

Day 6 - Paris

Day 7 - Paris

Day 8 - Paris to Bruges

Day 9 - Bruges to Amsterdam

Day 10 - Amsterdam

Day 11 - Amsterdam to Cologne

Day 12 - Cologne to Berlin

Day 13 - Berlin

Day 14 - Berlin

Day 15 - Berlin

Day 16 - Berlin to Prague

Day 17 - Prague

Day 18 - Prague

Day 19 - Prague to Hallstatt/Obertraun

Day 20 - Hallstatt/Obertraun to Salzburg

Day 21 - Salzburg

Day 22 - Salzburg to Munich

Day 23 - Munich

Day 24 - Munich

Day 25 - Depart from Munich

Some notes:

  1. We're considering arriving to Munich in time to take in part Oktoberfest so we're thinking of staying in a town that's outside of Munich but is accessible by the S-Bahn to cut down costs. Oktoberfest would be great if we could pull off but isn't a must.
  2. We plan on travelling between places by train and will be using public transportation/walking within the cities/towns as much as possible.
  3. Having said the above, we are open to doing day trips from any of the cities/towns (suggestions/recommendations welcome!) and are willing to rent a car or take a tour bus if required.
  4. We are both sports fans and would love to take in a soccer (football!) game at some point in the trip. Other sporting event recommendations are welcome!
  5. We like to walk around and explore, and aren't crazy into museums.
  6. We like historic places and natural places - we recently went to Las Vegas and neighbouring places and our favourite parts were the state parks.
  7. We can't do too much intense hiking due to some injuries, but we're up for light hikes.

Thank you all for reading!

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Arsene Wenger RTL interview transcript.

Paris Sport News - Tue, 07/17/2018 - 06:25

Original Source : https://www.football.london/arsenal-fc/full-transcript-arsene-wengers-rtl-14916477

Arsene Wenger, if you were President of France, what law would you pass?

I would introduce football as an obligation, everywhere, absolutely all over France. Every single school.

If there was one moment you could remove from your life?

All the defeats.

There haven't been many...

More than you think, each is a scar for life. Each will forever be a great disappointment.

What would be your ultimate fantasy object to have?

I don't really have one, maybe the team playing with the harmonious excellence all teams sometimes reach but for a full game. Everyone playing on the exact same wavelength for a whole match, it's so rare. These moments make the job worth suffering.

And what if you told us your biggest mistake?

Perhaps staying at the same club for 22 years. I'm someone who likes to move around a lot, but I also like a challenge. I've been a prisoner of my own challenge at times.

And what if you told us your greatest fear?

My biggest fear is to lose the ability to be physically independent. I enjoy my mobility, I like exercising. A real fear of mine.

And if you had to ask for someone's forgiveness?

All the people who I've made suffer. In my line of work, we are constantly making decisions that punish people, while making others happy. When you work with a 25-man squad, it's basically making 14 people unemployed every Saturday or Tuesday.Also, the players for whom I never managed to find the key to helping them reach their potential.

And what if you had to change career with someone else?

Anyone who has the potential to have a positive effect on people's lives. A politician or someone who discovers a revolutionary cure.

And what if you could spend one evening with someone, without anyone ever finding out who?

An evening of conversation? Or…. philosophizing? I'd like to spend an evening with Moses. What did he think of the Ten Commandments? Effectively our first constitution – I find it well constructed, what did he think?

And what if you told us your darkest sin, the one you keep all to yourself?

My taste for patisseries. I'm from Strasbourg. I eat them every day.

And then the jogging?

Yes.

And what if you weren't in football?

I'd be somewhere in a competitive field. I love competing. There's two types of competitiveness. Those who hate to lose, and those who love to win. We're all in some way a mix of the two and I think I hate losing more.In general, those who love to win more are attackers. Those who hate to lose more are defenders.

And what if you weren't Alsacien [from Alsace]?

If I'm not Alsacien, above all I'm a citizen of the world. I have no real taste for borders…

Arsene Wenger, you love Bob Marley – not many people know that…

I love Bob Marley. He's pure class, in a chill kind of way. And his music was surprising for back then. Also, there's something so sad about the fact he died at 35. He loved sport, music… for me Jamaica reminds me of that. Sport and music go together very well I find.

How did it all begin?

It all started in a little restaurant. The local football team used the restaurant as headquarters in a small town outside Strasbourg. I heard only football, and religion. In the morning, religion from everyone and then football was the distraction.I took part in all the conversations that the team's organisers would take part in. From a very young age. Five or six. I understood quickly that the team wasn't great. I started going to the games with my emissary.I believed only God could help them at the time. I would read and recite prayers during the game, at half-time while watching them play. I can tell you it's better to have a good centre-forward than a hymn sheet.

Was it the team that your dad coached?

He created a team because he saw I was fascinated with the game, I was about 13 when I started playing. The team didn't have a coach. It's remarkable that until the age of 19 I didn't have a coach.What's remarkable is that I've had such a long career in football despite this. It's incredibly fortunate.

You played at Strasbourg and then were a coach at 33. Did the desire to coach come from this lack of coaching?

Well firstly I wasn't convinced that I had the qualities to be a coach given I hadn't had an illustrious playing career. And I wasn't convinced I had the natural authority either.I found myself propelled into this job by the people around me and what they saw in me. Something I didn't see. I started out with players older than me.One weird paradox is that I've never struggled for authority, even with the older player, without screaming.

The shock in your career was in 1996 – you become the foreigner in the Premier League. You went from unknown to ubiquitous almost instantly. Was that surprising?

Well yes because there was this image in England that foreign managers couldn't be successful. There had only been two or three before me.They didn't want any foreigners and there were tons of theories about how a foreign manager could never win anything: 'It's too hard'.I came in incognito, from Japan. Which I loved. I did enjoy coming back to Europe, but I fully anticipated going back if it didn't work out.

You had some difficult moments with the English press-the tabloids- how did you cope? They literally tried everything to put you off, to destabilise you.

They literally tried everything to put you off, to destabilise you.They ran a lot of stories. A lot of lies. Listen, it's a public-facing job and as such you are subject to attention, to rumours. You deal with it by staying focused on the task at hand and letting rumours and lies be exactly what they are. If there's nothing concrete behind it, then it won't stick.

And that's where we see the famous stress resistance. You revolutionised English football, how?

Nutrition, training, attention to detail.I always try to make it, so people love football. As 13 and 14-year olds, kids are drawn to the playground, to play the game, to love the game.When it becomes a job, it becomes about 'having to' rather than wanting to. You 'have' to train, you 'have' to win, you 'have' to score. At that point it becomes less fun.I always tried to develop a philosophy around the desire to play the game. To cultivate that desire.

You won the title unbeaten in 2003-04. What was the secret recipe?

Effectively we were unbeaten for a year and a half. 49 games. It's an interesting detail because when we won the title in 2002 I told the press my dream was to win the title unbeaten.I got lambasted as pretentious, arrogant etcetera. We lost the title the next season to Manchester United. In 2003/04, I asked the players why we didn't win the title. They said, 'it's your fault'. I asked why.They said: 'you put too much pressure on us.' And it's interesting because I told them the only reason I said it was because I truly believed it. And then they did it. Which proves two things.One, sometimes we don't put the level of ambition high enough. We don't dare, we're scared. But you must set the bar as high as possible. Two, sometimes you must plant the seed and wait for it to grow.

And how do you keep the concentration after 10, 20, 30 matches?

That's the difficult bit. Very difficult. Man is easily satisfied with what he has. The team needs to constantly be fed new ambitions, new targets. 'What is your next level?'We all tend to wallow in comfort. We don't want the pain. Unfortunately, without the pain you don't reach a higher level. Without making the conscious decision to ask yourself: 'What am I aspiring to? Where do I want to go? What is my goal?' You stay where you are.It has nothing to do with elite sporting ability. Elite sport is not made for everyone. There's a personality expert I work with and the key factor isn't the intensity of the motivation, it's the endurance of the motivation. You could call it tenacity.It's who can go Monday to Sunday, not just Tuesday to Thursday.

Let's talk about your footballing philosophy. How do you see football nowadays and generally?

My vision is that normally you need to win and win with style. Winning should be the result of the quality of your playing style and how you express yourself on the pitch.All my life, people have told me that we need to win on Saturday. As a coach, I know that – but how?I like to think that the paying fan wakes up the morning of the game and thinks 'ah yes, my team is playing today' and he will be transported to a more beautiful world than his daily routine.I like to set myself the ambition to give him this hope, this excitement about coming to see the team play – even if I know I will let him down sometimes.You can't be a coach if you don't have this ambition. Otherwise you stay in something mediocre. You must want to please people with football.

What, for you, is the definition of a good coach or manager?

Someone who manages to get the most out of his squad. From a collective expression point of view and in terms of results.The best coach in the league isn't necessarily the one who wins the title. No. But nobody can measure this. You can't. You can't measure a coach because you can't measure if he's managed to reach the full potential of the squad.That's why my ultimate ambition was to win a league title unbeaten. Because even if someone beats me at that, they can't do it that much better.You have to manage the players, the press, the board, the fans…There are three main elements to management. The first is the style of play and the results. The second is the individual development of the players. Some people work incredibly hard on the players without seeing the results.Thirdly, the structure and values you want to integrate into the club. This is more of a moral responsibility and boils down to your values. It can give your club a new dimension on a global scale.

You have to manage the players, the press, the board, the fans…

There are three main elements to management. The first is the style of play and the results. The second is the individual development of the players. Some people work incredibly hard on the players without seeing the results.

Thirdly, the structure and values you want to integrate into the club. This is more of a moral responsibility and boils down to your values. It can give your club a new dimension on a global scale.

You often talk about values. What do you mean? What are values in football? Values in a coach?

Values in football are about finding all that is beautiful about team sport. It's self-expression in a collective setting. Shared pleasure over individualism. Expression of beauty together is more beautiful than expression of beauty alone. And respect of your teammate, your opponent, the fan, the ref.And most importantly, never accepting mediocrity. It's the ultimate value in my eyes. In the sense that you must demand it of yourself. You must not accept where you are. You must be generous. You must always give more.

And what if you told us what you regret sacrificing to have this career?

I regret having sacrificed everything I did because I realise I've hurt a lot of people around me. I've neglected a lot of people. I've neglected my family, I've neglected many close ones. Deep down though, the obsessed man is selfish in his pursuit of what he loves. He ignores a lot of other things. But it's a bone to chase at the same time.Often, I'm asked if Thierry Henry and Patrick Vieira will be good managers and I always answer yes. They have all the qualities; they're intelligent, they know football, they have excellent skillset, but do they want to sacrifice what needs to be sacrificed. It's an obsession which bounces around your head day and night.You wake up at 3am thinking about team selection, tactics, formation…

After 22 years at Arsenal, what's next for Arsene Wenger?

I'm asking myself the same question! Do I keep doing what I've been doing, what I know. Or do I share all the knowledge I've accumulated over the years in a slightly different way? That's the question I need to answer in the next few months.

Let's go back to the arrival at Arsenal. Lots of animosity between England and France at the time but one meeting changed your life.

Yes. David Dein, who brought me to Arsenal. Second of January 1989, I was in Turkey and had to fly via England. At the time, men and women weren't allowed in the same stand at Arsenal, which is unbelievable to say now, the women sat with the visiting fans. I was still smoking back then and got a light at half-time from David Dein's wife.

We started to talk, and that night I was invited to dinner and since he had a boat on the Cote D'Azur and I was at Monaco – we stayed in touch. He often came to matches in Monaco and told me: 'This is interesting what you're doing here, I'd like to hire you one day.'

I met Peter Hill-Wood when I went to Japan who expressed reservations about hiring a foreigner in England. During my time in Japan they called me and said they wanted me for sure, and that's how it happened.

[David Dein joins the conversation on the phone]

Christine Kelly: David Dein, you hired Arsene Wenger at Arsenal yes?

David Dein: Yes, I can confirm this!

Arsene Wenger: David! What are you doing here?!

Dein: Hey Arsene!

Wenger: You really are a magician!

Dein: You say that but you're the one with the magic wand, as always Arsene.

Kelly: David is actually in between two flights here so quite difficult to speak.

Wenger: Yes of course. I must say, he's an incredible logistician. You cannot imagine this, he's a one-man travel agency.

Kelly: David, what are Arsene's qualities as a coach

Dein: Quite simply, he's an incredibly intelligent person who knows football like the back of his hand. He has incredible integrity, he's organised, motivated and has a great sense of humour.

What people don't know is that Arsene can be incredibly funny, an evening with him is never, ever boring. I hope he'll continue to use his magic wand in whatever he goes on to do.

Kelly: Thank you to David Dein, in between connecting flights.

[David Dein leaves the conversation]

He's a great friend, an exceptional man. We've always stayed close, very close. He's had difficult patches and I have as well, but we've always been close.

He's a visionary. Absolutely. I must tell you this because not many people know but he has visited 85 prisons out of 102 in the UK to help the prisoners – he goes to hundreds of schools as benevolent work during the weekend.

He also does a huge amount of charity work with FIFA. He's also one of the key instigators of video replays

Ah yes, video. Your great passion. Five or six games a day is it?

Yes. No furniture at home just videos. I did my genotype exam and they told me I had the addictive gene. I just used it entirely in my professional life, it could have been used on something less beneficial for me.

Some more quick-fire questions. Which player left the biggest impression on you?

The most talent of those I've coached… Thierry Henry probably.

And which player would you like to have slapped?

Oh there's quite a few. All the big mistakes, in big games, I won't name names; they're stronger than me.

Which journalist would you most have liked to strangle?

Not one

No?

No… maybe Christine Kelly.

[Kelly laughs]

OK OK, and which match made you the happiest?

Probably beating Barcelona when they were at their highest highest peak. They were unbeatable. The football from both sides was exceptional.

Which player are you most proud of signing?

Erm... The ones I'm most proud of are the ones that cost little but turned out to be top class. Toure, Henry, Campbell, Anelka.

What about your worst recruit?

Oh there's quite a lot! It's a job which is complicated, measuring the worth of someone who joins your club. The key is to not be too stubborn and force the issue; realise the mistake and move on. Don't be scared to make mistakes.”

What is the perfect player for you, tactically, physically, ability-wise?

There's no perfect player. They all have flaws. For example, Messi is the most perfect of them all because he can make others play and he can score himself, but he has weaknesses, contrary to what some people think.

If you analyse his game, he's not very good in the air, he's not great defensively. But you don't make a living out of your weaknesses, you make a living out of your strengths, therefore the coach must emphasise the strengths as much as possible and put players around this person who hide his weaknesses.

And what if you hadn't been Arsenal coach, say in 2010, would you have become the French national team manager instead of Domenech?

Yes, I've had the opportunity numerous times to be France manager. I'm not sure if it was before or after Domenech. Maybe both… I've always been more interested in the day-to-day aspect of management. I find it much more stimulating.

It is a question I've been asking myself, if I should become a national team manager. A national team manager takes charge of ten games per year. In a club, you take charge of 60. My drug is the next match, so…

And what if you weren't coach of Arsenal, you would have taken charge of Paris Saint-Germain when the Qatari owners came in?

Maybe, maybe.

And what if you weren't coach of Arsenal, PSG might have won their first Champions League title already?

No I don't think so necessarily. PSG is in the middle of an enormous collective enterprise, where the goal mustn't be the Champions League trophy. The Champions League trophy should be the consequence of a long road of growth and hard work within the club.

A trophy of this stature is not really a realistic program to chase – there's six or seven clubs at the same level so it's a matter of luck, it's not chaseable.

What books do you like?

Sociology, philosophy…

I've bought you two, you choose

That's very nice, I'll pick 'Confiance en soi'. It's something we need more and more in modern society I believe. It's easier than ever to doubt one-self.

Secrets from the dressing room. Any skeletons in the closet? What do you tell them before a game?

You need to have a talk which is adapted to the circumstances. It's not always the same opponent. Your team doesn't always have the same energy levels – you need to have a good understanding of the energy levels in the team.

So let's say we have a team low on energy, what's the team talk before the game?

I don't accept this level of energy. This level of energy in the dressing room will result in disaster. We will not meet our objectives. It's time to wake up. You, over there, I saw you in the warm-up, you're not ready. Do you realise what you're about to do? Are you ready?

You need a speech adapted to the circumstances. And when you're at Arsenal you're always the favourite so you need to remind them that they need to win, and they need to get in a zone which always them to express themselves.

This zone, you go into it little by little. The big, big trap for the elite sportsman is that he remembers a time when he was flying. When everything was easy. We dream of returning to that level as and when we wish but, you get there little by little.

By starting with the basics, playing simple and realising everything gets easier from there.

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Daily Transfer News Thread - 07/17/2018

Paris Sport News - Tue, 07/17/2018 - 00:22

Auto-Refreshing Transfer News Thread from Sky Sports

Auto-refreshing reddit comments link

21:40

GOOD NIGHT!

That's it from us on a busy day of transfers - see you bright and early for more of the same!

21:29

EVERTON MAKE MALCOM BID

Everton are in advanced talks to sign Bordeaux winger Malcom, Sky sources understand.

Bordeaux's chairman is due to meet the Toffees on Thursday, with a £30m deal plus add-ons being discussed.

The club are considering offering the Brazilian winger a five-year deal worth £80,000-a-week.

20:21

BREWSTER'S NEW DEAL

Rhian Brewster has signed a new long-term deal with Liverpool, ending speculation over the Under-17 World Cup winners' future.

The contract marks Brewster's first professional deal with the Reds.

19:06

CECH BACK TO THE BRIDGE?

Chelsea are considering re-signing Petr Cech If they sell Thibaut Courtois to Real Madrid, Sky sources understand.

Chelsea also interested in Leicester City goalkeeper Kasper Schmeichel.

19:01

EX-CITIZEN JOINS SCUNTHORPE

Midfielder James Horsfield has become Scunthorpe United's fifth signing of the summer, after joining on a free transfer from Dutch side NEC Brada.

Horsfield came through Manchester City's academy, before leaving for Holland last year.

18:10

ALBION SIGN LILLE MIDFIELDER

Yves Bissouma has joined for Brighton and Hove Albion on a five-year deal from LOSC Lille, the club has confirmed.

Manager Chris Hughton said: “We are delighted to have signed Yves, and are pleased to welcome him to the club.

“We have been keen to strengthen the squad in the central midfield positions, and this will add to our options in this area. I am very much looking forward to working with him.

“He is someone with good technical ability on the ball, and has good experience at a relatively young age, after playing regularly in a competitive French league for the past two seasons.”

18:09

LIVERPOOL YOUNGSTER'S NEW DEAL

Liverpool and Nigeria Under-23 striker Taiwo Awoniyi has signed a new deal with the club, the Reds have announced.

17:30

'CHEEKY' RONDON LOAN REJECTED

Further to our post earlier (13.58), the Newcastle Chronicle reports Newcastle have had a loan bid termed "cheeky" for West Brom forward Solomon Rondon turned down by the club.

16:32

EVENING WHISPERS

Thanks to our friends at Football Whispers, here's the latest news and rumours from the transfer merry-go-round...

https://storify.com/services/proxy/2/aaJo_Dab6RGB4NZp042nTA/https/d2kmm3vx031a1h.cloudfront.net/igGjDzVSqSm6n7PKMrKN_2018-07-17-17-29-56-sky-top-10-graphic.png

16:13

MOUNT JOINS WILSON AT DERBY

Mason Mount, Chelsea's Under-19 star who impressed on loan at Vitesse last season, has moved on loan to join the Blues' old midfielder Frank Lampard at Derby.

You can read about the young midfielder's potential by clicking right here.

16:06

WILSON JOINS DERBY ON LOAN

Harry Wilson has joined the Frank Lampard revolution at Derby County, arriving from Liverpool on a season-long loan.

The Welsh international winger spent time at Hull City last season, scoring seven times in 14 games.

15:37

BOLTON OWNER PULLS OUT OF CRUNCH MEETING

Bolton owner Ken Anderson can no longer attend a meeting with the PFA which was arranged in an attempt to end a bitter row over bonus payments.

10 days ago the players went on strike in protest over unpaid money relating to bonus payments owed for the club retaining its Championship status as well as individual performance-related pay.

It meant the friendly against St Mirren had to be cancelled, which was due to be their opening game of pre-season.

We’re told that PFA Chief Executive Gordon Taylor has been personally involved in trying to resolve the situation at his former club.

14:55

EVEN MORE ON ALISSON

Liverpool have not agreed a fee with Roma for Alisson, Sky Sports News understands, but are more confident the goalkeeper will not definitely be going to Real Madrid than they were earlier in the summer.

Chelsea also retain their interest in the Brazilian number one, with worries at Stamford Bridge Thibault Courtois could leave for Madrid by the end of the transfer window.

14:50

OBIANG ON ATALANTA RADAR

Serie A side Atalanta have reportedly made a bid which could rise to £8.9m for West Ham midfielder Pedro Obiang, according to Italian outlet Bergamo Corriere Della Sera.

The 26-year-old joined the Hammers from Sampdoria in 2014.

14:15

TERRIERS EYE MONACO MAN

Huddersfield are interested in signing Monaco striker Adama Diakhaby, according to Sky sources.

The 22-year-old joined the club from Rennes last summer, but scored only twice in 16 Ligue 1 games last season.

14:03

MORE ON ALISSON

Liverpool have opened talks with Roma over a move for Alisson, according to Sky Italy.

It is claimed that a fee of 70m euro has been offered by Liverpool, although Roma want closer to 75m euro.

Sources close to Liverpool have told us this afternoon that there has been no bid and no approach for the Brazilian goalkeeper.

13:56

LATEST TRANSFER ROUND-UP

The Transfer Centre rounds up of all the latest summer transfer stories from Sky Sports News.

13:39

BREAKING NEWS

Liverpool are in talks to sign Roma and Brazil goalkeeper Alisson Becker, according to Sky Italy.

13:38

HOOPER SIGNS VILLA DEAL

https://twitter.com/AVFCOfficial/status/1019212780438728705

13:31

CAHILL COULD LEAVE CHELSEA

Chelsea captain Gary Cahill is considering leaving the club as they close in on a deal for Juventus defender Daniele Rugani, according to the London Evening Standard.

Cahill has been at the club six years, playing 282 games and winning the Premier League twice.

13:13

SUNDERLAND BID FOR EISA

Sunderland have bid £1m for Cheltenham Town’s highly-rated striker Mohamed Eisa.

Peterborough and Portsmouth are also keen to sign the 24-year old who joined Cheltenham from Isthmian League side Greenwich Borough last summer.

In his first full year as a professional, Eisa 25 goals, winning the club's supporters' and players' player of the year awards.

Sky Sports News understands that Cheltenham are looking for a fee around £1.5m

12:58

BREAKING NEWS

Newcastle have spoken to West Brom over the potential signing of Solomon Rondon. We understand the striker has a £16m release clause in his WBA contract.

However Newcastle are unlikely to meet that clause until they sell Aleksandar Mitrovic.

Fulham want to buy the Serb on a permanent basis following an impressive loan spell last season, but would need to pay in the region of £18m.

12:34

HOW DID FULHAM SIGN SERI?

Fulham produced what could be considered somewhat of a transfer coup in signing Ivory Coast midfielder Jean Michael Seri from Nice last week.

With the help of transfer consultant and ex-head of elite talent ID at Tottenham, David Webb, Sky Sports attempts to explain...

12:15

BAYERN NOT INTEREST IN PICKFORD

Sky Germany understands Bayern Munich are not interested in signing England and Everton goalkeeper Jordan Pickford.

This follows reports ahead of the World Cup that Bayern would scout Pickford at the tournament, where England reached the semi-finals.

Ex-Everton boss David Moyes urged Pickford to stay at Everton in another report this morning: “I think Everton is the right club for Jordan,” he said.

12:01

HART'S CITY CHANCE?

Joe Hart has flown out to the USA with the rest of the Manchester City squad for their pre-season tour.

Hart spent last season on loan with West Ham after falling out of favour under Pep Guardiola at the Etihad, having spent the previous campaign with Torino in Serie A.

The 31-year-old, previously England's first-choice goalkeeper, did not even make Gareth Southgate's 23-man World Cup squad, with Everton's Jordan Pickford earning rave reviews in Russia in his place.

Hart will be given the chance to stake a claim for the 'keeper's jersey at City this season, although he will first have to dislodge Ederson, who made 45 appearances for them last season, and his deputy, Claudio Bravo.

11:39

MORE FROM BENITEZ

On wheeling and dealing: "Unfortunately it's what we have to do. We have to wheel and deal, that is the way for us. And then we try to continue doing the right things.

"We are trying to sign a characteristic of players, it's not just names, big names, because they will be too expensive for us, but we are trying to sign players that can do a job for the team.

On Matt Ritchie: "We are in the same position as we were last year. He's our player, we're happy with him and we don't want to sell him.

"To do a move, too many things has to happen at the same time. I was talking with him this morning, I don't see any change with the situation."

11:30

ICELAND COACH DEPARTS

Iceland head coach Heimir Hallgrimsson has resigned from his post.

Hallgrimsson spent seven years in charge of the national team and guided them to this summer's World Cup in Russia, where they became the smallest nation ever to compete in the tournament.

Their group D campaign started well as they came from behind to draw 1-1 with Argentina, with goalkeeper Hannes Halldorsson saving a penalty from Lionel Messi.

11:14

KANE JOINS HULL

No, not that one...

Hull City’s summer recruitment has continued with the loan signing of right-back Todd Kane from Chelsea.

The 24-year-old has joined on a season-long deal with the move completed earlier today.

11:13

COURTOIS CAN LEAVE, HAZARD STAYING

Chelsea are willing to let Thibaut Courtois leave Stamford Bridge but have told Eden Hazard that he is not for sale, according to Guillem Balague.

Reports in Belgium newspaper Het Laatste Nieuws suggest Real Madrid have offered €170m (£150m) for Hazard and €55m (£48.5m) for the Belgian No 1.

However Balague believes no bid will be forthcoming from Real unless Chelsea change their mind and Hazard is given permission to leave.

The Blues will be reluctant to lose Hazard after Maurizio Sarri’s arrival, just three weeks before the start of the new Premier League season.

11:02

BREAKING NEWS

Sky sources: Joey Barton’s Fleetwood Town are understood to be in advanced talks with Sheffield United ahead of a season-long loan for striker Ched Evans.

The former Welsh international, in his second spell at Bramall Lane, struggled to break into Chris Wilder’s first team plans and believes a loan period and regular football will benefit Evans.

10:58

RAFA: TOON ON TIGHT BUDGET

Newcastle boss Rafa Benitez admits the club are on a tight budget this summer transfer window.

We'll have more transfer lines from Benitez over the next hour... including an update on Matt Ritchie, Jamaal Lascelles and Isaac Hayden.

10:38

BLIND SAYS GOODBYE

https://twitter.com/BlindDaley/status/1019163287467057152

https://twitter.com/BlindDaley/status/1019163401296236550

https://twitter.com/BlindDaley/status/1019163629990678528

10:33

UTD CONFIRM BLIND DEPARTURE

Ajax have re-signed Daley Blind from Man Utd on a four-year deal for a fee which could rise to £18.1m

https://twitter.com/ManUtd/status/1019163733686448128

10:27

LATE MORNING UPDATE

A round-up of all the latest transfer stories from Sky Sports News.

10:19

FOOTBALL WHISPERS

Here's the latest movers and shakers from our friends at Football Whispers about the biggest transfers which look to be on their way...

https://storify.com/services/proxy/2/3j0OT7ktvqCpGliiLzKcsA/https/d2kmm3vx031a1h.cloudfront.net/2MfygVPvS4WzQioeMLxo_whisper.png

10:04

PICKFORD 'SHOULD STAY'

Jordan Pickford would be "stupid" to consider a move away from Everton this summer, says former boss David Moyes.

The 24-year-old has been linked with a move away from Goodison Park, with German giants Bayern Munich rumoured to be monitoring him.

"I think Everton is the right club for Jordan," Moyes told The Sun. "It's a big club, he's only just moved and I would say to him it would be stupid to even consider another move if there was to be an option for him.

"I think it will help him being at Everton because he will get enough work and he's got a chance to develop without every single thing he does being scrutinised."

09:40

'HAZARD SHOULD CONSIDER MOVING ON'

Eden Hazard should consider leaving Chelsea in order to further his career, says Belgium head coach Roberto Martinez.

"It could be the best time [for Hazard] to try something different," Martinez told Spanish radio station Cadena Ser.

"He is a player who has maturity and a lot of leadership. His play is based on talent. Hazard could carry a new project anywhere in the world. He is at the best moment of his career. He could fit in any team in the world."

09:25

IPSWICH SIGN EDWARDS

Ipswich have completed the signing of Welsh winger Gwion Edwards for an undisclosed fee from Peterborough United.

The 25-year-old signed a two-year deal at Portman Road, with the Blues having the option of a further year.

He becomes Paul Hurst’s third signing following the arrivals of Jordan Roberts and Trevoh Chalobah last month.

09:14

NEYMAR, MBAPPE WANT PSG STAY

Neymar and Kylian Mbappe want to stay at PSG, according to the sporting director of the club’s youth academy.

Both PSG forwards have been linked with Real Madrid over the past year, with speculation intensifying in the wake of Cristiano Ronaldo’s departure from the Bernabeu to Juventus this month. But Luis Fernandez told Radio MARCA: “Neymar has decided to stay at Paris Saint-Germain. He wants to succeed, after not achieving it at the World Cup. I think that he wants to win titles with PSG.

“Mbappe? He stays too. He has said it, one hundred percent. He wants to win the Champions [League] with PSG. Financial fair play? It does not worry me. The important thing is that both Neymar and Mbappe want to stay at PSG.”

08:47

BURNLEY IN FOR CLUCAS

Talks will continue today as Burnley look to strengthen their midfield options with the signing of Swansea midfielder Sam Clucas.

Sean Dyche is a long-term admirers of the 27-year-old, who he tried to sign from Hull a year ago. Negotiations still have some way to go on a deal understood to be worth around £12m.

Burnley begin their Europa League campaign in nine days’ time.

08:22

BALE'S POSITIVE TALKS

Gareth Bale has held positive talks withReal Madrid over his future, making a move to Manchester United seem remote, according to the Daily Telegraph.

Bale had been seeking assurances about his role in the Real side under Julen Lopetegui, following Cristiano Ronaldo's departure to Juventus.

The 28-year-old has routinely been linked with a move to Old Trafford, but may give Real another chance following his two goals in the Champions League final against Liverpool.

08:02

LONG SET FOR HULL

Hull City are closing in on the signing of Sheffield United goalkeeper George Long.

SSN understands the 24-year-old underwent a medical on Humberside yesterday . Long spent last season on loan at AFC Wimbledon, and was transfer listed in May.

07:56

WELBECK AND OSPINA TO LEAVE?

Danny Welbeck and David Ospina may be on their way out of Arsenal as the Gunners look to trim their squad, according to the Daily Telegraph.

Arsenal have already spent around £70m this summer under new manager Unai Emery, and with Welbeck in the last year of his contract, the forward could be first to depart.

Bernd Leno's arrival from Bayer Leverkusen also suggests Ospina will leave, with Petr Cech more likely to battle for the No 1 spot at the Emirates.

07:43

UNITED IN FOR CROATIAN DUO?

Manchester United are contemplating a double swoop for Croatia World Cup stars Ivan Perisic and Ante Rebic, according to The Sun.

Winger Perisic, 29, had been close to joining United last summer, but stayed in Serie A with Inter Milan, while Eintracht Frankfurt midfielder Rebic, 24, has only just signed for the German club permanently following a two-year loan stint.

It is thought the pair would cost around £92m.

07:28

TRANSFER ROUND-UP

A round-up of all the latest transfer stories from Sky Sports News on Tuesday morning.

07:19

TOBY SLAMS UNJUST OMMISION

Toby Alderweireld insists his prolonged spell out of Tottenham's first-team last season was "unjustified" and admits he still unsure about his future.

The 29-year-old believes his solid form in Russia proves he is back to best after a frustrating spell with his club.

"I was very focused on this tournament," he said. "I wanted to prove something to me, show that the period before the tournament in which I, for whatever reason, did not play, it was unjustified.

"I wanted to show that I'm still Toby, same as in November."

07:06

MARADONA'S BIZARRE ARRIVAL

Diego Maradona turned up in unusual style for his new job as chairman of Belarus club Dynamo Brest.

06:47

'BARCA PREFER KANTE TO WILLIAN

Barcelona are more interested in signing N'Golo Kante than Willian from Chelsea, according to Spanish football expert Graham Hunter.

Sky in Italy have reported that Barca are keen to sign Chelsea midfielder Kante in a deal which could see Andre Gomes move to Stamford Bridge. Barca have also made two bids for Willian, with the second believed to be worth up to £53m.

"Barca are far more interested in getting Kante than Willian," Hunter told the Transfer Talk podcast. "That is fully understandable, they have been looking for a player like him for a long time.

"Andres Iniesta has moved on and Sergio Busquets, without Iniesta next to him, while his brilliance remains, his pace, ability to get around the pitch tactically is very different to Kante, who is an extremely good footballer."

Click here to listen to the Transfer Talk podcast

06:33

WARNOCK ON GRUJIC

Liverpool remain keen on Marko Grujic rejoining Cardiff but his agent is holding up the deal, Neil Warnock has said.

06:21

BOLT'S AUSSIE TRIAL

Usain Bolt is in talks to join Central Coast Mariners on a six-week trial, the A-League side have confirmed.

The eight-time Olympic champion revealed to Sky Sports News in 2016 that he was planning for a career in football, and the 31-year-old has trained with a number of sides since retiring from the track - including Borussia Dortmund, Norwegian side Stromsgodset and Mamelodi Sundowns in South Africa.

Australian club Central Coast Mariners have confirmed they are in negotiations with Bolt over a possible trial period for the Jamaican, who holds the world record for both 100m and 200m.

Former Manchester United coach and Hull boss Mike Phelan was appointed the club's new Sporting Director on Monday.

06:15

TRANSFER HEADLINES

06:12

GOOD MORNING!

And welcome to Sky Sports' live Transfer Centre, bringing you all of the latest news and rumours from the market...

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cat

Paris Sport News - Mon, 07/16/2018 - 17:46

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.

Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]

Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]

Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]

As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]

Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]

The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]

The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]

All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]

Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]

Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]

Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.

An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]

A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]

A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.

While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]

Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy

Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.

Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]

Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]

Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]

Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]

Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]

Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute

Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]

Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]

Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]

Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.

Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]

In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]

Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]

Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]

Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]

Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.

Senses Main article: Cat senses

Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]

Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]

Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]

Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]

The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47

File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]

Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]

Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]

Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]

Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]

Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]

Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]

Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]

Sociability

Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]

Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]

Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]

Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]

Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]

Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]

Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]

Grooming

The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]

Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]

An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]

Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]

Hunting and feeding

A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.

A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]

Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153

Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".

Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153

Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]

Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]

Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]

Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.

The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.

Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]

Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]

Reproduction See also: Kitten

When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.

Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]

After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]

Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]

A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]

The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]

Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]

Ecology Habitats

A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]

Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]

As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]

Feral cats Main article: Feral cat

Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]

Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]

Impact on prey species

Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]

In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]

Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]

In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]

Impact on birds

A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.

On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]

Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.

Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats

Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]

As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.

A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]

Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.

Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.

Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]

Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]

Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]

History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]

Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii

A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]

In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]

Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223

Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]

Superstitions and cat burning

Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]

"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]

According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]

See also

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