1- Data Analytics and Visualization in American Football (NFL, CFL, NCAAF)

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Progression of leaguewide passer rating in the NFL since stats first started being recorded in 1932 until 2020

Raw data is here. All data sourced from Pro Football Reference.. You can find out what passer rating is and how to calculate it here.

2- Positions of NFL Hall of Famers


Description: This is chart (version 2) shows the distribution of positions played by the 300 player inductees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.

Data: Here

Some pre-modern era positions were consolidated into their modern positional equivalents. All running positions (fullback, tailback, etc...) were consolidated into the running back position to best illuminate the type of positions played.
Source: Here

3- Top 20 all-time in NFL Sacks per game



Source: pro football reference

Chart: Excel

Data: The data in my source isn’t in a sacks-per-game format, I worked with the data in excel to get that info, as part of a larger project I’m working on where I created a new metric called the Sack Index

Note on current players: this chart has an abundance of current players because many of these guys are in their prime. It’s extremely likely that they will all move down the list as they age. For example, we are starting to see J.J Watt move down the list. In Deacon Jones last 4 seasons he averaged under 0.4 sacks per game. Guys like Chandler Jones, Myles Garrett, T.J. Watt will likely not sustain their current rates, but they are beasts right now and deserve the spot they are in.

4- Frequency of NFL team total wins after starting the season 0-3

Source: Pro football reference

11% of 3-0 teams have won the Super Bowl

75% of 3-0 teams have gone the the playoffs

The average win total to end the season is 10.7 (11.4 adjusted to 17-game season) for a 3-0 team.

Here is the frequency of win totals for teams to start the season 3-0.


Chart: excel

5- Using machine learning methods to group NFL quarterbacks into archetypes


Data Source:

Data collected from a  series of rushing and passing statistics for NFL Quarterbacks from 2015-2020 and performed a machine learning algorithm called clustering, which automatically sorts observations into groups based on shared common characteristics using a mathematical "distance metric."

The idea was to use machine learning to determine NFL Quarterback Archetype to agnostically determine which quarterbacks were truly "mobile" quarterbacks, and which were "pocket passers" that relied more on passing. I used a number of metrics in my actual clustering analysis, but they can be effectively summarized across two dimensions: passing and rushing, which can be further roughly summarized across two metrics: passer rating and rushing yards per year. Plotting the quarterbacks along these dimensions and plotting the groups chosen by the clustering methodology shows how cleanly the methodology selected the groups.

Read this blog article on the process for more information if you're interested, or just check out this blog in general if you found this interesting!

Data: Collected from the ESPN API

6- Map of the most popular Division 1 college football teams in the United States. Each county's color reflects the team with the most Twitter followers.


Map was created using data downloaded through the Twitter API in R.

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The data were analyzed in R and visualized in Tableau.

Areas of the map with no clear pattern indicate that the area either had a low amount of data available or that there is no clear favorite.

To view breakdown of the top 5 in each county, check out this interactive version: web map

Source: Here

5- How long did cover athletes for the "NCAA Football" series play in the NFL after their college careers?


To make this graph, the author used this article by CBS Sports and the great website Pro Football Reference. He put everything together using the power of Google Sheets.

7- All NFL leads greater than 14 points where the team went on to lose, since 1920


Source: Pro Football Reference

Tools: MS Excel

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8- Analysis of the correlation of NFL team records from one year to the next. (Teams at the far ends of the standings show regression; weak year-to-year correlation)

Source: Exported season standings for the last 20 years from pro-football-reference

Charts: Excel

9- Progression of NFL scoring over time, by points per team per game


Raw data is here. All data sourced from Pro Football Reference.

Wondering if covid had anything to do with scoring being so high in 2020-2021?

It affected the league's offseason training schedule, and historically when that schedule has been disrupted it has harmed defenses more than offenses, leading to increased scoring. The league has also been changing the rules lately to encourage higher scoring.

There's also the matter of a lack of fans in the stands, which makes it easier for offensive players to communicate with each other.

10- Combined faces of top 200 NFL players (with positions)

Code : https://github.com/SoumitraAgarwal/NFL-Faces

Data used : here

Technologies used : OpenCV, Dlib

A timeline of running backs drafted in the first round of the NFL draft since 2000

Source: pro-football-reference.com

Chart: excel

11- Analysis of NFL quarterbacks drafted in the top 10 (49% success rate)

Chart: Excel

Source: Pro Football Reference Draft Finder

Scoring/Ranking system: My own analysis. Like any ranking, stat or rating, my system is arbitrary and some will argue the threshold is too low, others might say it’s too high.

I used the metrics I did, because statistics have less meaning when comparing across different eras. The 4 metrics I used: Years as a team’s primary starter, years total, pro bowls and All-Pros are still comparable across eras. One can argue that Pro-Bowls are less reliable because they are a popularity contest, but this is only 1/4th of the stats and I still think it’s directionally valid over the long term.

Why did I pick 7.5 as the threshold? Of course with a top pick you want a perennial all-pro and a HOFer. But if a player is a 7 year starting QB in the league with an all-pro section, I think that’s enough to say they were a success. Other examples of qualifying as a success:

10-year career, 7 starting and 3 as a backup

5-year career, all as a starters with two pro bowls and an All-Pro

12- NFL Stadium Attendance

Source: the attendance data was taken from a Tidy Tuesday post.There are additional links to Pro Football Reference within. The author also got data on the NFL International Series from wikipedia

Tools: R, mainly tidyverse packages including dplyr and ggplot2, as well as rvest for web scraping. The code for downloading the data, cleaning it and creating the chart is here

The chart shows the regular season average home game attendance for each NFL team from 2000 to 2019. I also included the season win percentage as the background color, and marked seasons where teams went on to the playoffs or won the Superbowl that year (playoff attendance is not included). I have not counted the attendance for games played as part of the NFL International Series in London and Mexico. The attendances at these games often inflated the average attendance for teams that don't typically have such large crowds at their actual home games.

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What time is the Super Bowl performance?

The time of the Super Bowl performance varies and depends on the year and location of the event. Typically, the Super Bowl halftime show starts around 8:30 PM Eastern Standard Time. It is recommended to check the official schedule for the specific year's Super Bowl for accurate information.

When is the Super Bowl time?

The Super Bowl is typically held on the first Sunday in February, and the kick-off time is usually around 6:30 PM Eastern Standard Time.

Who won the Super Bowl 2020 and what was the score?

The Tampa Bay Buccaneers won Super Bowl 2020 against the Kansas City Chiefs with a score of 31-9.

Which of the following teams have been to the Super Bowl?

The list of teams that have been to the Super Bowl varies as it changes every year with the participants. Some of the teams that have made multiple Super Bowl appearances include the Pittsburgh Steelers, New England Patriots, Dallas Cowboys, and the San Francisco 49ers.

How is the home team in the Super Bowl determined?

The home team in the Super Bowl is determined by a rotating schedule set by the NFL. The team designated as the home team alternates between the AFC and NFC conference champions from year to year.

Where is Super Bowl weekend?

Super Bowl weekend is held at a different location each year, usually in a city with a suitable stadium that can accommodate the large crowd of fans. The location is determined by the NFL several years in advance.

How can I watch the Super Bowl again?

You can watch the Super Bowl again by checking for re-runs on television or online streaming services such as NFL Game Pass, YouTube TV, or Amazon Prime Video. Some cable providers also offer a Super Bowl archive where you can access previous games.

How much time is the Super Bowl?

The Super Bowl is typically about four hours in length, including pre-game shows, commercials, halftime performance, and the actual game. The exact length may vary slightly depending on the year and specific events surrounding the game.

What's the number of this year's Super Bowl?

The number of this year's Super Bowl depends on the specific year you are referring to. The Super Bowl is numbered in Roman numerals, and the number changes each year based on the current year's event. For example, Super Bowl LV was held in 2021.

When did the Bucs win the Super Bowl?

The Tampa Bay Buccaneers won their first Super Bowl in the 2002 season, Super Bowl XXXVII.

Who won the Super Bowl 1?

The Green Bay Packers won Super Bowl I, which was played on January 15, 1967.

Where to place a bet on the Super Bowl?

You can place a bet on the Super Bowl at various sports betting websites or in person at a casino or sportsbook. It is important to note that sports betting is regulated differently in different states, so it is crucial to research the laws and regulations in your area before placing a bet. Some popular sports betting websites include DraftKings, FanDuel, and BetMGM.

Who won the 36 Super Bowl?

Super Bowl 36 was played on February 3, 2002, and was won by the New England Patriots. The Patriots defeated the St. Louis Rams with a score of 20-17, earning their first Super Bowl victory in franchise history.

How can I watch the Superbowl online for free?

There is no guaranteed way to watch the Super Bowl for free online, as the broadcast rights for the game are held by CBS or NBC and typically require a paid TV subscription or a streaming service to access. Some websites may claim to offer free streaming of the Super Bowl, but these sites are often illegal and may pose a risk to your computer or device. The safest and most reliable way to watch the Super Bowl is through a paid TV subscription or a legitimate streaming service.

How do you make a Super Bowl box pool?

A Super Bowl box pool is a popular betting game in which participants purchase a square or box on a grid corresponding to the possible final score of the game. The numbers on the grid represent the last digits of each team's score. The prize is typically split among the owners of the squares corresponding to the final score at the end of each quarter or at the end of the game. To make a Super Bowl box pool, first create a grid with the numbers 0-9 along the top and left side. Next, sell squares or boxes to participants and collect payment. Finally, randomly assign numbers to the vertical and horizontal rows to determine the winners of each quarter or at the end of the game.

Where can I watch Super Bowl for free?

The most reliable way to watch the Super Bowl for free is through a TV antenna if the game is broadcast over-the-air in your area. Another option is to check with local bars or restaurants that may be showing the game or with friends or family who may have access to a live stream or cable or satellite TV service. Some online streaming services, such as Hulu with Live TV or YouTube TV, may offer a free trial that can be used to watch the Super Bowl. However, it is important to read the terms and conditions carefully and to be aware of any costs that may be associated with these free trials.

Super Bowl Audience Size

Super Bowl is one of the most-watched events in the United States, with an estimated 100 million viewers tuning in annually. The exact number of people who watch the Super Bowl varies from year to year, but it's always a significant event in terms of viewership.

Number of Points to Win the Super Bowl

There is no set number of points required to win the Super Bowl. It is a game of American football, and the team with the most points at the end of regulation time is declared the winner. The game is played in four quarters, with each quarter lasting 15 minutes. The winning team must have more points than their opponents at the end of the game to secure the win.

Watching the Super Bowl in Atlantic City

There are many bars, restaurants, and hotels in Atlantic City that offer Super Bowl viewing parties. You can also check local listings for special events and watch parties happening in the area. Some establishments may require a cover charge or reservation, so be sure to call ahead to confirm details.

Super Bowl Football

The Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL), typically played in early February. The exact date of the Super Bowl varies from year to year, but it's always on a Sunday. The game is one of the biggest events in American sports, attracting millions of viewers and featuring top-performing athletes and musical acts.

Who sang the national anthem at the Super Bowl 2005?

The national anthem at Super Bowl 2005 was performed by Aaron Neville, Dr. John, and Aretha Franklin.

What team won the first Super Bowl?

The Green Bay Packers won the first Super Bowl in 1967.

When did the Falcons and Patriots play in the Super Bowl?

The Atlanta Falcons and the New England Patriots played in Super Bowl LI on February 5, 2017.

How can I watch the Super bowl on my Roku?

You can watch the Super Bowl on your Roku by using various streaming services such as CBS All Access, Fubo TV, Sling TV, Hulu + Live TV, and more that offer live streaming of the Super Bowl. To access these services, you will need to download the corresponding channel from the Roku Channel Store and subscribe to it. Once subscribed, you will be able to watch the Super Bowl on your Roku by logging into the streaming service. Additionally, some of these services may offer free trials, so you can try them out before committing to a subscription.

Super Bowl Ring Leaders

The NFL player with the most Super Bowl rings is Tom Brady, with 7 championships to his name.

Tom Brady Super Bowl Wins

Tom Brady has won 7 Super Bowls throughout his career.

Super Bowl 2020 Winner

The Tampa Bay Buccaneers won Super Bowl 2020, with a score of 31-9 against the Kansas City Chiefs.

Super Bowl Winning Quarterbacks in the Hall of Fame

Many Super Bowl winning quarterbacks are in the Hall of Fame, including Terry Bradshaw, Joe Montana, Troy Aikman, and others.

Mask Policy at Super Bowl

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, fans at the Super Bowl were required to wear masks in 2021.

Aaron Rodgers Super Bowl Win

Aaron Rodgers won a Super Bowl in 2010, when he led the Green Bay Packers to victory against the Pittsburgh Steelers.